Monthly Archives: January 2012

Teaching Vocabulary

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Definition of Vocabulary

  • It represents the breadth (size) and depth (level) of all words we know — those we use, recognize, and respond to in meaningful communications.
  • It has components which are the macro skills: listening, speaking,reading, and writing.
  • Reading vocabulary is the richest.

This is the some key concepts:

  • Children come to school with a thousand of vocabulary words.
  • Children experiment with unfamiliar words.
  • As children’s vocabulary increases, their comprehension also develops.
  • Vocabulary knowledge is developmental.
  • Students have to hear the word, say them, manipulate them. and play with them (Blachowicz & Fisher, 2005)

Here are some examples:

  • Say lanky.
  • Again, say lanky.
  • Lanky sounds like laki in Filipino. It also starts with L like large.
  • Lanky is similar to laki and large.
  • Students learn 10-12 conceptually related words in a period of time.

Indicators of Vocabulary Knowledge

  • Use of a word in speech and in writing
  • Recognition of the word in speech and in print
  • Correct use of the word based on meaning or context
  • Correct pronunciation of the word

I hope you learned something in this discussion.

Thank you for visiting my website!

 

Staging in Principles of Teaching 2 (Panel Discussion)

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PANEL DISCUSSION

Topic: English in the Curriculum

Moderator: Kimberly Ann Paras

Members of the Panel

Panelist 1: Venus Ruby Delhi Howard

Panelist 2: Ye Jin Lee

Panelist 3: Riva Mendoza

Panelist 4: Han Eol Kim

Panelist 5: Daryl Roxas

INTRODUCTION

Moderator: Linda Chavez, an American author, commentator, and a radio talk show host, once said, “Although an increasing proportion of the Hispanic population is foreign-born – about half of adults in this group – English proficiency is and should remain a requirement for citizenship.”

The history of the English language really started with the arrival of three Germanic tribes who invaded Britain during the 5th century AD. These tribes, the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, crossed the North Sea from what today is Denmark and northern Germany. At that time the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language. But most of the Celtic speakers were pushed west and north by the invaders – mainly into what is now Wales, Scotland and Ireland. The Angles came from England and their language was called Englisc – from which the words England and English are derived.

Because English is so widely spoken, it has often been referred to as a “world language”, the lingua franca of the modern era, and while it is not an official language in most countries, it is currently the language most often taught as a foreign language.

Friends, teachers, fellow classmates, good morning. Gear yourselves and witness the magnanimous presentation of ours. Ladies and gentlemen, the avant-garde of our second language, the English majors!

 

Venus: My name is Venus Ruby Delhi and I am the Department Chair of English at Angeles University Foundation. I have worked for the past 10 years with Education majors in helping them obtain the needed credentials for teaching English. I work primarily in Marikina and Quezon, but because I am involved in online education (Applied Linguistics), I work with people meeting other requirements as well.

Ye Jin: Venus, thanks for kicking off this program. My name is Ye Jin Lee. I am the President of Holy Angel University, and Vice President for Development and Communication at the Philippine Sports Academy. I received my Ph.D. in the Philosophy of Education from Philippine Normal University in 1995. My bachelor’s and master’s are in philosophy.

Riva: I am Riva Mendoza and I was born in Paranaque City. I was brought up in Maidenhead, and educated at Maidenhead Grammar School and Jesus College, Cambridge, where I read English. My first published book, 1992’s Fever Pitch, is an autobiographical story detailing my fanatical support for Arsenal Football Club. As a result, I received the William Hill Sports Book of the Year Award. In 1997, the memoir was adapted for film in the UK, and in 2005 an American remake was released, following Jimmy Fallon’s character’s obsession with the Boston Red Sox.

Kim: I am an  Filipino-American teacher and Pulitzer Prize–winning writer, best known as the author of Angela’s Ashes, an award-winning, tragicomic memoir of the misery and squalor of his childhood. In a 1997 New York Times Op-Ed essay, Mr. McCourt wrote about his experiences teaching immigrant mothers at New York City College of Technology in Brooklyn.

Dada: I am Daryl Roxas, a Filipino novelist and poet, considered to be one of the most influential writers in the modernist avant-garde of the early 20th century. I am known for Ulysses (1922), a landmark work in which the episodes of Homer’s Odyssey are paralleled in an array of contrasting literary styles, perhaps most prominently the stream of consciousness technique he perfected. Other major works are the short-story collection Dubliners (1914), and the novels A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916) and Finnegans Wake (1939). His complete oeuvre includes three books of poetry, a play, occasional journalism, and his published letters.

Moderator: Okay, thank you, panelists. I now open this discussion. So, it is about English in the curriculum, right? But before digging the deeper part of this discussion, may I first ask what English if as a subject taught in classrooms?

Venus: People whose native language is not English, but who wish to learn English as a second language, must learn English as a new language, as a skill, as an additional means of communication. They have to learn how to pronounce strange words, and which syllables to emphasize, and what rhythms and tonal pitches should be used.

But people whose mother tongue is English do not have to go to school to learn these things; they learn it automatically, from their parents, their relatives, their friends and from everyday life. For example, they do not have to ‘learn’ the grammar structure, or the various forms for past, present and future tenses; they just acquire that ability subconsciously and instinctively, from sheer exposure to the language; they do not consciously ‘know’ the rules of grammar, and they probably could not even explain them. By the age of three, or maybe even earlier, they just automatically know what words to use in many situation and what form those words should take.

Moderator: So, are you negating your stand?

Venus: No, I’m not. Let me finish.

Moderator: Okay.

Venus: However, later, as part of their formal educational training, they will have ‘English’ lessons at school, along with other subjects such as Geography and History and Mathematics etc. They may be given writing practice, and the opportunities to read literature that will expand their communication and learning skills. They will be encouraged to read and write stories and poetry, and will be given opportunities to become more and more familiar with their native tongue and how it is used in different ways to communicate information and ideas.

They do not need to learn to ‘understand’ the English language. They can already do that, but by doing ‘English’ as a school subject, they will expand their vocabulary; discover alternative, and maybe better  ways to express themselves. In doing so, any little ‘mistakes’ in their English will be corrected along the way.

Moderator: Ahh… so you presented a contrast. Well, I think everything is clear to me now, except if somebody disagrees with you.

So, you are saying that hose who are learning English as a ‘second language’ are learning it as an entirely new language. It is not easy to do this, but well worth the effort.

Native-English speakers do not have to learn ‘English’, they already ‘know’ English!

But, by learning English as a school subject, their natural ‘English’ is enhanced and developed.

Venus: Yes, that’s right.

Ye Jin: I actually commend Ms. Delhi for that wonderful answer. And I just want to say something about the objectives of teaching English.

Moderator: Haha. That is what I am about to ask you, actually.

Ye Jin: Haha. Just a matter of coincidence. Okay, going back, a language is a medium of communication and interacting verbally in our day-to day life situation in family and society. The teaching of English is highly desirable for a English teacher. Before starting his teaching, it requires for the teacher to fix up his aims and objectives. It makes him efficient.

 (A) The objective of teaching English has two main aspects:

(i) Language aspect: Words, sentences, pronunciation, spelling and grammar.

(ii) Literature aspect: Words, sentences, expressing ideas, feelings and experiences.

(B) The English language teaching has four objectives to develop four skills:

(i) Reading, (ii) Writing, (iii) Speaking and (iv) Listening.

(C) The English teaching also has two objectives:

(I) Skill objectives include:

  • To develop the skill of speaking,
  • To develop the skill of reading,
  • To develop the skill of writing,
  • To develop the skill of listening,
  • To enable the students for the use of grammar correctly,
  • To enable the students to analyze the element of language and establish the appropriate relationship among linguistic components.

(II) Cognitive objectives include:

  • To acquire knowledge,
  • To diagnose the weakness of speaking and writing English,
  • To compare and illustrate linguistic components,
  • To classify the elements of English language,
  • To understand the meaning of prose, poetry, story and drama by reading.

In order to teach English correctly and properly English teacher must know the aims and objectives of teaching English.

Moderator: It really shows that nowadays, English has a special and predominant role in the communicative sphere of the world. It has also a special identity in the field of education.

Now, let us take a deeper look in English being part of the curriculum.

Riva: I think it is my momentous moment to present my insights regarding our topic. I want to share the time frame used in teaching English. Normally, for secondary level, English is taught an hour per day, integrating the macro skills— listening, speaking, reading, and writing. In a span of a week, it is taught for five hours.

Moderator: And… how about the content of the curriculum for every year?

Riva: Additionally, I will give you an overview about the English curriculum being studied by students from first year to fourth year level.

Year One

English 1

  • English 1 is the introductory course for high school English. Students learn the basics of the writing process including constructing thesis statements and writing essays. They also study grammar rules and vocabulary. In terms of literature, students typically look closely at each author’s style, theme, and plot. Finally students learn about and practice research and public speaking skills.

Year Two

English 2

  • English 2 continues to build on the major principles taught in English 1. Students focus on expanding their formal and informal forms of written expression. They work through each step of the writing process from pre-writing to final drafts. Students continue to learn about grammar and expand their vocabulary. In terms of literature, students continue to focus on increasing their comprehension while recognizing theme and plot. They also examine each author’s use of literary devices. Students are expected to present information orally and learn more about correct research techniques.

Year Three

English 3

  • With English 3, students focus specifically on American literature. In many cases, this course can be successfully integrated with American History. Students continue to work on their formal and informal forms of written expression. Students are expected to successfully complete literary analyses of various forms of literature. Students are expected to successfully complete a research paper this year along with numerous oral presentations.

Year Four

English 4

  • English 4 culminates the student’s secondary school language arts experience. The focus is on World Literature this year. Students are expected by the end of this year to be able to comprehend and analyze various forms of literature including essays, nonfiction, fiction, and poetry. A strong focus will be on formal written expression through essays and literary analyses. Further, students are expected to complete a research paper this year along with numerous oral presentations.

Moderator: Well, I think you provided substantial ideas about the form and function of English in the curriculum.

  • English 4 culminates the student’s secondary school language arts experience. The focus is on World Literature this year. Students are expected by the end of this year to be able to comprehend and analyze various forms of literature including essays, nonfiction, fiction, and poetry. A strong focus will be on formal written expression through essays and literary analyses. Further, students are expected to complete a research paper this year along with numerous oral presentations.

Many children learn several languages at a very young age. Language teaching involves many methods. All the available methods may be appropriate to different contexts. There is no one single method strongly recommended in the teaching of English since the level of the learners differ from one another. So, it becomes inevitable for a teacher to know the different methods of teaching & learning Awareness of variety of methods help him to apply the relevant method in his classroom successfully.

As a teacher the objective of teaching English must be achieved. Many children learn several languages at a very young age but some fail to learn even the basic English. A child acquires all the necessary skills in his mother tongue easily whereas it fails in the second language. The salient features which affect the learning of second language among the students are expected to be discussed today.

James: Okay, there are primary methods and approaches used in teaching English language effectively.

JIM CUMMINS’ INTER DEPENDENCE HYPOTHESIS

According to Jim Cummins’ a firm foundation in L1 is essential to master L2. Learning of mother tongue is a natural process. This natural process should be adopted in learning English as second language. L1 learning takes place in the early stages. So, the same process can be adopted in L2.

  1. Due attention on correct pronunciation and accent.
  2. Formation of speech habits should be paramount. (important)
  3. Formal Loud Reading.
  4. Avoid teaching of grammar.
  5. Life related words are introduced.
  6. Create exposure to language (L2) for communication.
  7. Create informal atmosphere in L2 classroom.
  8. Build up efforts for real life communication.
  9. Encourage learners to focus on the meaning or message, not on form.
  10. Be tolerant to errors. If correction is needed, do it incidentally

Moderator: Oh… okay. How about the other methods and approaches? Have you heard about S-O-S approach?

Venus: The SOS approach was officially accepted by the Madras Presidency in 1950. Till 1990, the SOS has been practiced in schools in South India. It is a communication of certain aspect of the Direct Method, oral and Audio Lingualism. The basic importance features of this approach are:

  1. Learning a language is not only learning its words but also the syntax
  2. Vocabulary is presented through grades.
  3. The four skills of (LSRW) Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing are presented in order.
  4. Sentence patterns exist and can form the basis of a language course.
  5. Class room teaching and learning are made enjoyable.
  6. Concrete linguistic items are taught through Demonstration
  7. Abstract ideas are taught through association.
  8. It helps to develop learners’ competence in the use of structure in L2.

Ye Jin: More so, Communicative Language Teaching or CLT is a functional approach to language learning. In 1972, this language course was proposed in Europe. The main aim is to develop the communicative competency of the learner. His need of understanding and expressing in the L2 is the main focus of this method.

OBJECTIVES OF CLT:

  1. To produce effective communicative competency in learners.
  2. The focus is on meanings and functions of the language.
  3. More importance on the learner and his learning.
  4. Language is acquired in CLT.
  5. The teacher is a facilitator in language acquisitions.
  6. Involve the learner in the learning process thro’ problem solving, tasks, participation and interaction.
  7. All the four LSRW skills are equally treated.

Moderator: So, it is an eclectic approach. CLT involves many classroom activities like group work, pair work, language games, role play, and question-answer sessions. It is not confined to any set of text books. The learners are mostly introduced task based and problem solving situations.

Finally, I want to hear from you some techniques used in teaching the English language.

Riva: Oh, well, let me start. As for myself, I see the natural approach as the best technique that can be possibly used in class.

The Natural Approach is designed to develop basic communication skills. The development stages are:

(1) Comprehension (preproduction), (2) Early Production, and (3) Speech Emergence. This approach to

teaching language has been proven to be particularly effective with limited English proficient students.

COMPREHENSION

In order to maximize opportunities for comprehension experiences. Natural Approach instructors (1)

create activities designed to teach students to recognize the meaning in words used in meaningful contexts, and

(2) teach students to guess at the meaning of phrases without knowing all of the words and structures of the

sentences.

a. ALWAYS USE VISUAL AIDS (pictures, realia, gestures).

b. MODIFY YOUR SPEECH to aid comprehension, speak more slowly, emphasize key words,

simplify vocabulary and grammar, use related ideas, do not talk out of context.

c. DO NOT FORCE PRODUCTION. Students will use English when they are ready. They

sometimes experience a “silent period” which can last days or weeks.

d. FOCUS ATTENTION ON KEY VOCABULARY.

Han Eol: Let me continue. After comprehending the selection, it is important that there is an early speech emergence among students.

EARLY SPEECH

In non-threatening environments, students move voluntarily into Stage 2. Stage 2 begins when students

begin using English words to give:

a. yes/no answers

b. one-word answers

c. lists of words

d. two word strings and short phrases

Venus: Furthermore, in the Speech Emergence Stage, speech production will normally improve in both quantity and quality.

The sentences that the students produce become longer, more complex and they use a wider range of vocabulary. Finally, the number of errors will slowly decrease.

Students need to be given the opportunity to use oral and written language whenever possible. When they reach the stage in which speech is emerging beyond the two-word stage, there are many sorts of activities which will foster more comprehension and speech. Some suggestions are:

a. preference ranking

b. games of all sorts

c. problem-solving using charts, tables graphs, maps

d. advertisements and signs

e. group discussion

f. skits (finger plays, flannel boards, puppets)

g. music, radio, television, film strips, slides

h. writing exercises (especially Language Experience Approach)

i. reading

j. culture

Moderator: So, in general, we may classify language acquisition activities as those in which the focus is on the message,

i.e., meaning. These may be of four types:

a. content (culture, subject matter, new information, reading)

b. affective-humanistic (student’s own ideas, opinions, experiences)

c. games (focus on using language to participate in the game)

d. problem-solving (focus on using language to locate information)

This time I won! :)

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Cabalen Hall

In this game we need to get the measurement of ate Marie’s tummy. Ha-ha and I got it perfectly. And this is my prizes!

Now Ate Marie’s son is almost five months, and he’s so cute. 🙂

AUF Family! Thank you so much to all of you especially to my boss Ma’am Tere and my Ate’s Ate Lelai, Ate Tey, Ate Sai, and Ate Marie.

THE A TO Z SUCCESSFUL LIFE

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A- rrive a little early for every date or appointment.

B- e enthusiastic in everything you do.

C- omplete every assigned task.

D- o a little bit more than what is required.

E- xpress yourself after you know the facts.

F- eel comfortable in every situation by being yourself.

G- o all out to serve others.

H- elp and pray for your enemies.

I- nculcate positive values.

J- oin in and help when you are needed.

K- eep your head cool, it will save you more trouble.

L- isten with your heart not your ears.

M- ake the best with what you have.

N- ever say it is hard, instead try your best.

O- pen your heart to those less fortunate than you.

P- lease yourself by pleasing others.

Q- uickly responds to any emergency needs.

R- emember the spirit of Christmas should be everyday.

S- tudy as to exel in your profession.

T- ake advantage of opportunity.

U- se spare time intelligently.

V- alue your health.

W-ork at your work.

X- out any qualities that could lead to failure.

Y- ou are the most important asset. Treat it well physically and emotionally.

Z- estfully meet any challenge.

If you want to be successful in your life it should be better atleast follow this simple guidelines. Simple but true.