Monthly Archives: February 2012

Tips on Good Delivery

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Aristotle once said ” success in delivery is  of utmost importance to the effect of speech.” While it is emphasized that good delivery is natural and has conversational quality; there are some primary elements underlying good delivery. They are the following.

 1. Direct eye contact

This simply means  that the speaker looks at the audience squarely in the eyes. This may prove difficult in the case of the speaker reading the manuscript. Nonetheless, it is important that the speaker look up from the manuscript now and then and look directly at the audience. This must be done properly so that the quality of delivery will not suffer.

For small groups, eye contact is made with everyone but for only a few seconds at a time. Any longer than that may make some people feel self-conscious.

For larger groups, eye contact is made with one section of the audience at a time. Doing it in a mechanical left-to-right pattern should be avoided. it will appear more natural if it is done randomly.

2. Effective use of voice

 

In oral interaction, the tool used to transmit the verbal message from the source to the receiver is the human voice. For the effective use of one’s voice in oral communication, the following elements should be  considered:

a. Volume

The voice should be loud enough to be heard by the audience. The speaker should adjust his/her voice to the acoustics of the room, the size of the audience, and the level of background noise.

b. Rate of Speaking

This refers to the speed at which the person speaks. To achieve the correct rate of speaking the speaker should consider the following:

– the mood to be created

– the composition of the audience

– the nature of the occasion

c. Pitch

An effective speaker should also use pitch to clarify and emphasize the ideas in his/her message. Varying the pitch of voice in speaking makes the difference between a good and bad delivery of speech.

d. Articulation

To produce sounds distinctly,  the speaker should learn to manipulate his vocal apparatus: lips, tongue, jaw and soft palate properly. Good articulation considers all the sounds in a given word without overemphasizing any of them.

e. Pause

Pauses are usually made at the end, and not in middle of thought units except in the case of emphatic stress. It is very important for the speaker to make brief, momentary pauses in his/her speech to enable the audience to fully understand the meaning of the message and to follow the speaker’s trend of thought.

f. Fluency

A speech must flow smoothly. Repetitions or expressions like “uh” or “er” tend to interrupt the flow of the message and distract the attention of the audience.

 

 

 

 

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Principles to Guide Vocabulary Instruction

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Principle 1: Select words in actual reading materials

  • Choose words which are essential to understanding the entire text.
  • Choose words without clues.
  • Choose words which are to be encountered even in other texts.

Recommended Words

  • Key words/ content specific words or those that appear in materials for basic reading
  • Useful words/ general academic vocabulary or those which almost always appear in texts
  • Interesting words or those that tickle the imagination or those with intriguing origins
  • Vocabulary- building words of those with clues

Priciple 2: Relate words with other words

  • Henry (1974) recommends word sorting or ” joining”. Joining allows comparing, classifying, and generalizing.

         Example:

  • Which four words are alike?

             red,orange,blue,paper,violet

  • He also recommends ” excluding”. It involves discrimination, negation, and rejection of words in a group.

        Example:

  • Which word does not belong to the group?

             AUF, FEU, UST, DOH

  • He also suggests ” selecting”. Selecting involves choosing and explaining reasons behind a choice. Knowledge on synonyms and antonyms helps ease this cognitive process.

         Example:

  • Rena’s quiet behavior was mistaken for ______.

         a. shyness b. modesty c. terror

         The answer is C.

  • He also emphasizes ” implying”. This involves making choices based in if then course and effect relationship.
  • E.g. Pedal is to bicycle as engine is to …

            a. driver b. car c. wheel d. road

Principle3: Relate words with schema

  • Use the words in sentences with clues regarding the meaning
  • The clues must be familiar among students
  • E.g. Sherlock Holmes is a famous sleuth.

            a. adventurer b. scientist c. detective d. criminal

  •     Loud is to sound as bright is to

             a. day b. music c. night d. light

Principle 4: Teach words in Pre-Reading and Post-Reading Activities

  • Do the traditional unlocking of difficulties
  • Use the new words learned during the post reading activities such as questions
  • Use the new words learned even in retelling

Principle 5: Teach words systematically and in-depth

  • Ask students to find an antonym for the world learned
  • Ask the students to fill in blanks with the new words learned
  • Ask students to restate definitions
  • Ask students to define the word based on their experience
  • Ask students to use the word in a meaningful sentence

Principle 6: Awake interest in and enthusiasm for word

  • Be enthusiastic in teaching
  • Use words in discussions even after the learning of a text with that word
  • Tell origins and derivation of words
  • Vary strategies in teaching vocabulary
  • Use gadgets such as computers, cameras, and even video games in teaching